How do you measure results in your science studies?

The studies use various neuropsychological tests and three types of brain imaging to understand the extent and nature of improvements. The neuropsychological tests explore such fields as memory, processing speed/response time, attentiveness and language fluency. Brain imaging indicates areas of increased activity in the brain. On a more human level, we see people become more…

How do your programs address the issues of the aging brain?

The breakthrough in our approach is to go after the three root problems described above that the aging brain faces. Addressing the root problems gets to the symptoms, such as memory loss and waning problem-solving and communication skills. Our extended scientific team has looked across brain systems at what is happening on a biological and…

What is the net result of these changes?

As the brain’s ability to encode the things that we hear and see slowly deteriorates, the brain adapts by slowing down the pace at which it operates. Imagine that you are out at dusk, trying hard to figure out what you see in the distance. You must look at it for a longer time than…

How does the production of neuromodulators decline, and why does it matter?

As we age, the brain’s production of neuromodulators (brain chemicals that help with learning and remembering) drops sharply. For example, studies suggest that after age 40, with each passing decade people produce an average of 13% less of the critical neuromodulator dopamine than in the previous decade. Neuromodulators – especially dopamine, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and serotonin…

Why do brain processes slow down with age?

Like most older machines, the brain undergoes slow physical deterioration. This is aggravated by declining use. In the early part of life, the rapid pace of learning makes continuous, powerful changes in brain machinery. However, as people get older, they often become like concert violinists who have stopped practicing. Resting on their laurels, they still…

Why do people experience cognitive decline as they age?

Cognitive decline is driven by a number of underlying interacting changes in the brain that, together, gradually and significantly cause a decline in brain function. There are three key underlying changes in the brain that cause this decline: A slowing in brain processing speed. A weakening of brain signals from the senses. A decrease in…

What is cognitive decline?

Cognitive decline — a gradual weakening of understanding, thinking and remembering— is a natural and expected part of aging. This has been confirmed by numerous studies on memory, response time, attentiveness, the ability to speak and to understand what others are saying, and even IQ. We all face a gradual loss in mental sharpness as…